Containerization is a type of virtualization strategy that emerged as an alternative to traditional hypervisor-based virtualization.
As with the latter, container-based virtualization involves creating specific virtual pieces of a hardware infrastructure, but unlike the traditional approach, which fully splits these virtual machines from the rest of the architecture, containerization just creates separate containers at the operating system level.
In containerization, the operating system is shared by the different containers rather than cloned for each virtual machine.
The open source Docker provides a container virtualization platform that serves as a good alternative to hypervisor-based arrangements.
Containerization has also emerged as a potential solution to mobile security problems for multi-use phones or mobile devices such as in the trend called "bring your own device" (BYOD), wherein companies allow employees to use their personal devices for work.